equal opportunity

Immigration and Nationality Act

This law prohibits discrimination because of national origin against U.S. citizens, U.S. nationals, and authorized aliens. The law also prohibits discrimination because of citizenship status against U.S. citizens, U.S. nationals, and the following classes of aliens with work authorization: permanent residents, temporary residents, refugees, and asylees. 


Provides qualified employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in any 12-month period for the following: the birth of a child and its care during the first year; the adoption of a child or placement in the employee's home of a foster child; the care of the employee's spouse, child or parent with a serious health condition; or the serious health condition of the employee.

Executive Orders 11,246 and 11,375

Executive Order Number 11,246 prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion or national origin. Executive Order Number 11,246 was amended by Executive Order Number 11375 on October 13, 1967 (32 Fed. Reg. 14,303), effective October 1968, to include gender as a protected class. 

Equal Pay Act

Prohibits sex discrimination in compensation or benefits for women and men who work in the same establishment and perform jobs that require equal skill, effort, and responsibility and which are performed under similar conditions.

Civil Rights Act

Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color or national origin under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Sexual harassment is also prohibited under this law as are all forms of harassment based on membership in a protected class.


Prohibits employment discrimination based on age with respect to persons who are at least 40 years of age. 

Title IX (Employment)

Prohibits employment discrimination based on gender by educational institutions receiving or benefiting from federal financial assistance. Actions Necessary: Requires the adoption and publication of grievance procedures to resolve employee and student complaints, as well as the designation of a responsible employee to coordinate compliance.

Section 504

Section 504, at 29 U.S.C. § 794, provides that no person, by reason of disability, shall be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.

Section 503

Section 503, contained at 29 U.S.C. § 793, requires government contractors with any contract in excess of $10,000 to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals with disabilities.

G.I. Bill

Requires postsecondary institutions with federal contracts of $100,000 or more to implement an affirmative action program for the following categories of veterans: Disabled Veteran, Qualified Disabled Veteran, Other Protected Veteran, Recently Separated Veteran, and Armed Forces Service Medal Veteran. Said program is not necessarily limited to employment connected with the federal contract. Provides reemployment rights.